Expanding Our Reach: Development of a Civilian Helicopter Air Ambulance K9 Response Program

Published:April 11, 2022DOI:


      This short communication highlights the development and implementation of the first civilian helicopter air ambulance canine response program in the United States.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Air Medical Journal
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Palmer LE
        • Maricle R
        • Brenner JA.
        The Operational Canine and K9 Tactical Emergency Casualty Care Initiative.
        J Spec Oper Med. 2015; 15: 32-38
        • Palmer L.
        An introduction to K9 tactical emergency casualty care. New initiative blends evidence-based medicine and user experience for high-threat veterinary trauma care recommendations.
        EMS World. 2016; 45: 84-87
      1. Honoring officers killed in 2021. The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. 2021. Available at: Accessed October 4, 2021.

        • Miller L
        • Pacheco GJ
        • Janak JC
        • et al.
        Causes of death in military working dogs during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, 2001-2013.
        Mil Med. 2018; 183: e467-e474
        • Edwards TH
        • Palmer LE
        • Baxter RL
        • et al.
        Canine Tactical Combat Casualty Care (K9TCCC) Guidelines.
        J Spec Oper Med. 2020; 20: 101-111
        • Palmer L
        • Yee A.
        K9 tactical emergency casualty care.
        J Special Oper Med. 2017; (Available at) (Accessed October 4, 2021)
        • Hall KE
        • Boller M
        • Hoffberg J
        • et al.
        ACVECC-Veterinary Committee on Trauma Registry Report 2013-2017.
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2018; 28: 497-502