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- Diagnosis and treatment of hypothermia.Am Fam Physician. 2004; 70: 2325-2332
- The prehospital management of hypothermia - an up-to-date overview.Injury. 2018; 49: 149-164
- Steady-state and time-dependent thermodynamic modeling of the effect of intravenous infusion of warm and cold fluids.J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012; 72: 1590-1600
- Thermodynamic and logistic considerations for treatment of hypothermia.Mil Med. 2008; 173: 743-748
- Controlled trial of an intravenous fluid warmer.Air Med J. 1994; 13: 18-20
- Design and demonstration of a battery-less fluid warmer for combat.J Spec Oper Med. 2013; 13: 31-35
- An experimental study of warming intravenous fluid in a cold environment.Wilderness Environ Med. 2007; 18: 177-185
- Active warming of saline or blood is ineffective when standard infusion tubing is used: an experimental study.Can J Anaesth. 2002; 49: 270-275
Supported by the University of California Irvine Emergency Department. The refrigerator was provided by Dr. Shannon Toohey. The remaining materials were purchased using the University of California Irvine Emergency Department funds for academic research.
The authors thank the University of California Irvine Emergency Department.