- •Temporizing measures of volume resuscitation and vasopressor therapy are generally used in the prehospital setting for the management of cardiac tamponade.
- •Pericardiocentesis is indicated and can be successfully performed in the prehospital setting for patients with hemodynamic compromise secondary to cardiac tamponade.
- •The addition of positive pressure, whether via intubation, continuous positive airway pressure, or BiLevel positive airway pressure, can aggravate hypotension, especially in preload-dependent conditions, such as cardiac tamponade or hypovolemia.
- •Hypotension, oxygenation, and pH (also known as HOP killers) should be considered before intubation.
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