Post–Clinical Trial Survey of Emergency Medical Services Providers: Research Experience and Attitudes

      Although medical research has a long history, emergency medical services (EMS) research is still in its infancy, with very few EMS systems having been scientifically scrutinized. Modern EMS practices have been founded on reasonable assumptions governing care. Designing EMS research can be complicated by time constraints, care priorities, limited provider research experience, and challenges of obtaining informed consent. Despite these drawbacks, consumers and healthcare providers are demanding greater use of “evidence-based” protocols and procedures.
      • Committee on Quality of Health Care in America IOM
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Air Medical Journal
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Committee on Quality of Health Care in America IOM
        Crossing the quality chasm. National Academy Press, Washington DC2003
        • Ellis GB
        • Lin MH
        Informed consent requirements in emergency research.
        OPRR Rep. 1996; (Accessed October 29, 2009.): 97-101
        • Erler CJ
        • Thompson CB
        Part II: ethics, human rights, and clinical research.
        Air Med J. 2008; 27: 110-113
        • Biros MH
        • Runge JW
        • Lewis RJ
        • Doherty C
        Emergency medicine and the development of the Food and Drug Administration's final rule on informed consent and waiver of informed consent in emergency research circumstances.
        Acad Emerg Med. 1998; 5: 359-368
        • Contant C
        • McCullough LB
        • Mangus L
        • Robertson C
        • Valadka A
        • Brody B
        Community consultation in emergency research.
        Crit Care Med. 2006; 34: 2049-2052
        • Alldredge BK
        • Gelb AM
        • Isaacs SM
        • Corry MD
        • Allen F
        • Ulrich S
        • et al.
        A comparison of lorazepam, diazepam, and placebo for the treatment of out-of-hospital status epilepticus.
        N Engl J Med. 2001; 345: 631-637
        • Longstreth Jr., WT
        • Fahrenbruch CE
        • Olsufka M
        • Walsh TR
        • Copass MK
        • Cobb LA
        Randomized clinical trial of magnesium, diazepam, or both after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
        Neurology. 2002; 59: 506-514
        • Hallstrom AP
        • Ornato JP
        • Weisfeldt M
        • Travers A
        • Christenson J
        • McBurnie MA
        • et al.
        Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
        N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 637-646
        • Moore EE
        • Moore FA
        • Fabian TC
        • Bernard AC
        • Fulda GJ
        • Hoyt DB
        • et al.
        Human polymerized hemoglobin for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock when blood is unavailable: the USA multicenter trial.
        J Am Coll Surg. 2009; 208: 1-13
        • Burton TM
        Amid alarm bells, a blood substitute keeps pumping.
        The Wall Street Journal online. 2006; : A1-A5
        • Northfield Laboratories Inc
        Northfield Laboratories strongly disputes Wall Street Journal story conclusions.
        • Burton TM
        FDA, Northfield face inquiry over study of blood substitute.
        The Wall Street Journal Online. 2006; February; 24: B4
        • Burton TM
        Use of substitution for blood draws ethics challenge.
        Wall St J (East Ed). 2006; : A2
        • Burton TM
        FDA to weigh using fake blood in trauma trial.
        Wall St J (East Ed). 2006; (B2.): B1
        • Kipnis K
        • King NM
        • Nelson RM
        An open letter to institutional review boards considering Northfield Laboratories' PolyHeme trial.
        Am J Bioeth. 2006; 6: 18-21
        • Kipnis K
        • King NM
        • Nelson RM
        Trials and errors: barriers to oversight of research conducted under the emergency research consent waiver.
        IRB. 2006; 28: 16-19
        • Dickert NW
        • Sugarman J
        Community consultation: not the problem: an important part of the solution.
        Am J Bioeth. 2006; 6: 26-28
        • Lo B
        Strengthening community consultation in critical care and emergency research.
        Crit Care Med. 2006; 34: 2236-2238
        • Nichol G
        • Powell J
        • van Ottingham L
        • et al.
        Consent in resuscitation trials: Benefit or harm for patients and society?.
        Resuscitation. 2006; 70: 360-368
        • Schmidt TA
        • Delorio NM
        • McClure KB
        The meaning of community consultation.
        Am J Bioeth. 2006; 6 (discussion W46-8.): 30-32
        • Anastasi A
        Psychological testing. 6th ed. Macmillan, New York, NY1988
        • Fink A
        How to measure survey reliability and validity. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA1995
        • Zar J
        Biostatistical analysis. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ1984
        • Brown LH
        • Criss EA
        • Prasak NH
        An introduction to EMS research. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ2002
        • Thompson CJ
        • Panacek EA
        • Erler CJ
        Basics of research.
        Air Medical Journal. 2006-8;