General Information

        Air Medical Journal (ISSN 1067-991X) is published bimonthly by Elsevier Inc., 360 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010-1710. Months of issue are January, March, May, July, September, and November. Business and Editorial Offices: 1600 John F. Kennedy Blvd., Suite 1800, Philadelphia, PA 19103-2899. Customer Service Office: 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63146. Periodicals postage paid at New York, NY, and additional mailing offices.
        POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Air Medical Journal, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63146.
        CUSTOMER SERVICE (orders, claims, online, change of address): Elsevier Periodicals Customer Service, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63146. Tel: 1-800-654-2452 (U.S. and Canada); 314-453-7041. Fax: 314-523-5170. E-mail: [email protected] (for print support); [email protected] (for online support)
        Address changes must be submitted four weeks in advance.
        YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION RATES: United States and possessions: Individual $110; Institution $158. All other countries (prices include airspeed delivery): Individual $155; Institution $205; Single Issues $35. Current prices are in effect for back volumes and back issues.
        Further information on this journal is available from the Publisher or from this journal's Web site ( Information on other Elsevier products is available through Elsevier's Web site (

        Advertising information

        Advertising orders and inquiries can be sent to: USA, Canada, and South America, Jeffrey S. Berman, Be Media Partners LLC, 415 King Road Doylestown, PA 18901-5538; phone (215) 249-3060; fax (215) 249-4741; [email protected]. Classified advertising orders and inquiries can be sent to Jim Maloney, Elsevier Inc., 1600 John F. Kennedy Blvd., Suite 1800, Philadelphia, PA 19103; phone (215) 239-3130; fax (215) 239-3734; [email protected]. Europe and the rest of the world, Julie Toop; phone +44 (0) 1865 843016; fax +44 (0) 1865 843976; e-mail [email protected].

        Author inquiries

        For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission where available), please visit The site also provides the facility to track accepted articles and set up e-mail alerts to inform you of when an article's status has changed, as well as detailed artwork guidelines, copyright information, frequently asked questions, and more. Please see Information for Authors for individual journal. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, are provided after registration of an article for publication.
        The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39. 48-1992 (Permanence of Paper).


        For queries about author offprints, e-mail [email protected]. To order 100 or more reprints for educational, commercial, or promotional use, contact the Commercial Reprints Department, Elsevier Inc., 360 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010-1710. Fax: (212) 462-1935; e-mail [email protected]. Reprints of single articles available online may be obtained by purchasing Pay-Per-View access for $30 per article on the journal Web site,
        © 2009 by the Air Medical Journal Associates. All rights reserved.


        Single photocopies of single articles may be made for personal use as allowed by national copyright laws. Permission of the Publisher and payment of a fee is required for all other photocopying, including multiple or systematic copying, copying for advertising or promotional purposes, resale, and all forms of document delivery. Special rates are available for educational institutions that wish to make photocopies for non-profit educational classroom use.


        Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier's Rights Department in Philadelphia, PA, USA: phone (+1) (215) 239-3804, fax (+1) (215) 239-3805, e-mail [email protected]. Requests may also be completed online via the Elsevier homepage (
        In the USA, users may clear permissions and make payments through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; phone: (+1) (978) 750-8400, fax: (+1) (978) 750-4744, and in the UK through the Copyright Licensing Agency Rapid Clearance Service (CLARCS), 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1P 0LP, UK; phone: (+44) 20 7631 5555; fax: (+44) 20 7631 5500. Other countries may have a local reprographic rights agency for payments.

        Derivative Works

        Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution.
        Permission of the Publisher is required for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations.

        Electronic Storage or Usage

        Permission of the Publisher is required to store or use electronically any material contained in this journal, including any article or part of an article.
        Except as outlined above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the Publisher.
        Address permissions requests to Elsevier Rights Department at the fax and e-mail addresses noted above.


        No responsibility is assumed by the Publisher or the Air Medical Journal Associates for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made.
        Although all advertising material is expected to conform to ethical (medical) standards, inclusion in this publication does not constitute a guarantee or endorsement of the quality or value of such product or of the claims made of it by its manufacturer.

        Association subscriptions

        Air Medical Journal is the official publication to paid members of AAMS, AMPA, ASTNA, IAFP, and NEMSPA. Questions regarding subscription and address changes should be directed to the appropriate association office.

        Back issues

        Limited back issues are available for $25 each by contacting Subscription Services at (800) 654-2452.
        Air Medical Journal is indexed in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL).
        Editorial Contributions Air Medical Journal encourages article queries and submissions. Editorial guidelines are available at Submit manuscripts to For more information, email [email protected]